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Axiom Client Circuit

Specifying a query into Axiom requires writing an Axiom client circuit which requests verified computation over historic on-chain Ethereum data. This circuit can be written in Typescript using our Axiom SDK. It is available to install into your project via the npm registry:

npm i @axiom-crypto/client

Writing a Client Circuit

Writing an Axiom client circuit for your application involves three steps:

  • Define the input schema for your circuit by defining a CircuitInputs type in terms of the allowed CircuitValue and CircuitValue256 types.
  • Export a defaultInputs object that contains each of the fields of CircuitInputs. These will be default inputs that are used when compiling the circuit, but different inputs will be used when proving the circuit.
  • Write the circuit function using the Axiom SDK.
  • Expose public inputs and outputs of the circuit to your smart contract application using addToCallback.

Axiom client circuits generally take the structure below.

import {
} from "@axiom-crypto/client";

// all fields of `CircuitInputs` must be `CircuitValue`, `CircuitValue256`,
// or static arrays over these types
export interface CircuitInputs {
input0: CircuitValue;
input1: CircuitValue;
input2: CircuitValue256;
blockNumber: CircuitValue;
address: CircuitValue;
slot: CircuitValue256;

export const defaultInputs = {
input0: 10,
input1: 200,
input2: 5000,
blockNumber: 5100000,
address: "0x3fC91A3afd70395Cd496C647d5a6CC9D4B2b7FAD",
slot: 0,

export const circuitFunction = async (inputs: CircuitInputs) => {
// define your application logic using the Axiom SDK

// ZK primitives are available via the Axiom SDK
const temp0 = add(inputs.input0, inputs.input1);
const temp1 = isZero(inputs.input0);
const temp2 = mul(temp0, temp1);

// access historic on-chain Ethereum data using Axiom subqueries
const account = getAccount(inputs.blockNumber, inputs.address);
const balance = await account.balance();

const storage = getStorage(inputs.blockNumber, inputs.address);
const value = await storage.slot(inputs.slot);

// expose relevant inputs to the smart contract

// expose relevant outputs to the smart contract

Circuit Inputs

The circuit input type CircuitInputs should contain all inputs to your circuit that can change with each run of the circuit. All primitive value types in CircuitInputs must be the ZK-specific types CircuitValue or CircuitValue256 detailed here. All uses of Array should be considered to be fixed length, meaning that they must be instantiated with arrays of the same length in all circuit runs. Constant values that do not change should be included directly inside the circuit function itself.

We discuss how inputs are parsed into these types below. As a rough rule of thumb, if you want to cast a value to uint253 or smaller, use CircuitValue. If you need uint254 to uint256 sized values, use CircuitValue256. Big integer values greater than 256 bits are not supported by the primitive types.

Circuit Functions

You must specify the computation over historic on-chain Ethereum data you wish to verify as a circuit using the Axiom SDK instead of standard Typescript. Typescript can be used for control flow, but cannot be used to specify computations with dynamic length or branching. The Axiom SDK provides functions operating on CircuitValue and CircuitValue256 types in a few categories:

  • ZK Primitives, which include:
    • Arithmetic Operations: add, sub, neg, mul, div, mod, pow
    • Boolean Logic and Selection: or, and, not, select, selectFromIdx
    • Comparison: isZero, isEqual, isLessThan, checkEqual, checkLessThan
  • Axiom Subqueries, which request ZK-authenticated on-chain data from Axiom.

See Developer Resources for help writing and debugging Axiom circuits, including Finding Storage Slots and Receipts and Logs for an explanation of how to find commonly used types of on-chain data. For examples of circuit code, see Axiom Cookbook and Tutorial.

Circuit Outputs

Within the circuit function, you can specify what values to be exposed to your smart contract via callback using the addToCallback function, which allows either CircuitValue or CircuitValue256 inputs. Each value is cast to uint256 and then to bytes32 and added to an array axiomResults: bytes32[]. These results are the only values your callback smart contract will receive from the Axiom client circuit when a query is verified on-chain. As a result, you will want to include both logical inputs and outputs of the computation that your circuit verifies.


CircuitValue and CircuitValue256 are always interpreted as uint types. This means when they are added to axiomResults, they are always left-padded with 0s to uint256 and then cast to bytes32.

Compiling and Proving

Once we have finished writing our circuit code, we can use the Axiom CLI to compile and prove the circuit. This will first require specifying new inputs for the circuit.

Specifying Inputs

Circuit inputs are specified as JSON files conforming to the CircuitInputs schema.

"input0": 0,
"input1": 1234,
"input2": 5678,
"blockNumber": 0,
"address": "0x0",
"slot": 10

Allowed primitive types can be number | string | bigint. The JSON will be auto-parsed into the circuit input type you specified. There will be a runtime error during compilation if the auto-parsing fails.

Compile with Axiom CLI

To compile, run

npx axiom circuit compile app/axiom/example.circuit.ts --function circuitFunction --provider $PROVIDER_URI_SEPOLIA

where $PROVIDER_URI_SEPOLIA should be set to a JSON-RPC provider URL. Upon successful compilation, a JSON of build artifacts will be output to data/compiled.json. In particular, the JSON contains the querySchema which is a unique identifier of your circuit, independent of the inputs. You will need this to validate Axiom callbacks in your client contract. For more about how the querySchema is constructed from your Axiom circuit, read about it in Axiom Query Format.

To see all axiom circuit compile options, run npx axiom circuit compile --help or see the Axiom CLI docs.

Prove with Axiom CLI

Now that your circuit is compiled, you can generate proofs on different inputs. For any input in input.json, you can run with

npx axiom circuit prove app/axiom/data/compiled.json app/axiom/data/input.json --provider $PROVIDER_URI_SEPOLIA

This will output a JSON of your proven data to app/data/proven.json. In particular, it has a field computeResults, which consists of a bytes32[] array of the values you specified to add to the callback. If you change a field in your inputs.json, rerunning should change the computeResults.


We recommend running your circuit on a different set of inputs than the `defaultInputs`` used to compile the circuit: this ensures that the circuit does not have unwanted hardcoded assumptions.

To see all axiom circuit prove options, run npx axiom circuit prove --help or see the Axiom CLI docs.


If you want some more advanced functionality, check out our Rust SDK.